Gender Bias in Proposition 16 and 48

The National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA) use of test scores to determine freshman athletic eligibility means that female athletes have two strikes against them. Not only do women have access to fewer athletic opportunities and less athletic financial aid than men, they are also more likely to be disqualified from even competing for these slots. This discrimination is based not on women's athletic or academic skills, but on biased tests that do not accurately predict their ability to succeed in college studies.


What's Wrong with Proposition 48 and 16?

What is Proposition 16?

"Healthy" Medical School Admissions

What is the MCAT?

Different Tests, Same Flaws: A Comparison of the SAT, SAT II and ACT

Recent debate in college admissions has centered on a critique of the SAT I in favor of the SAT II and/or ACT. Proponents of these alternatives argue that the SAT I is primarily an aptitude test measuring some vague concept of "inherent ability," while the SAT II and ACT are more closely tied to what students learn in high school. However, while the origins of the exams and the rhetoric test-makers offer may differ, the SAT I, SAT II, and ACT present many of the same flaws and shortcomings.

10 Myths about the SAT

1. The SAT gives all students an equal shot at college admission.

Because of the way the test is constructed, its rewards for strategic guessing, the highly-speeded pace, and cultural biases, the SAT denies African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and women equal opportunities for higher education. Research shows that when admissions offices place heavy emphasis on SAT scores - particularly when they use rigid cut-off score minimums - the number of qualified students of color and low-income students admitted goes down.

Selected Annotated Bibliography on The SAT: Bias and Misuse

Includes entries on:

Admissions Alternatives


Gender Bias

Test Misuse

Predictive Validity

Racial/Ethnic Bias


Test Construction


Compiled by the staff of the

SAT I: A Faulty Instrument For Predicting College Success

The "New" SAT: A Better Test or Just a Marketing Ploy?

In June 2002, the College Board announced a series of changes to the SAT-I that were implemented in March 2005. The action primarily responded to threats by the University of California, the SAT's biggest customer, that it planned to drop the test and to the growing number of colleges which have made test scores optional for many applicants. 

The SAT: Questions and Answers

What Is the SAT?

The SAT Reasoning Test is this nation's oldest, most widely used -- and misused -- college entrance exam. The SAT is composed of three sections, "Critical Reading," "Mathematics," and "Writing," each scored on a 200-800 point scale. The 171 questions are nearly all multiple-choice; the exam now includes one brief essay, and ten math questions require students to "grid in" the answer. By design, the test is "speeded" which means that many test takers are unable to finish all the questions.

The ACT: Biased, Inaccurate, and Misused

What is the ACT?

More than a million high school students take the ACT (formerly known as the American College Testing Program Assessment) each year. Like the SAT, the ACT is a standardized multiple-choice test meant to predict first-year college grades. While the SAT predominates on the East and West Coasts, the ACT is more common in the Midwest, Southwest, and Deep South.

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